Schliemann at Troy and Mycenae

Max Pfingsten This lecture covers the history of Bronze Age Greece, beginning with the discovery of its greatest city, Mycenae, by Heinrich Schliemann, emphasizing that the quest to find these cities was inspired by works of classical literature. It then describes the architecture of Mycenae and some of the relics found there. Finally, the lesson examines the Mycenaean achievement and its place in Western history. For a very long time, scholars believed that the stories of the Iliad and the Odyssey were just that – stories. But one man, named Heinrich Schliemann, was certain that Troy and Mycenae were real places. He believed that Greek epic, when combined with the historical accounts of Herodotus and the geographical accounts of Strabo, provided enough detail to find these ancient cities of myth. Schliemann was not so much what we would call an archaeologist – more of a treasure hunter. Most archaeologists today would not want Schliemann in their clubhouse.

Sculpture and Art in Ancient Greece

It contains 6 shaft graves, which contained 19 bodies: Five of these Royal Graves were discovered with their embalmed bodies and grave goods intact by Schliemann the last was discovered by a Greek archaeologist named Stamatakis and their finds nearly fill the main gallery of the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. Note the Cyclopean Wall behind the circle. The fortification walls were extended in c. The incorporation of the circle was probably an attempt by later rulers to appropriate the heroic past as their own.

The Mask of Tutankhamun is a death mask of the 18th-dynasty ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun (reigned – BC). Mask of Agamemnon The Mask of Agamemnon is a gold funeral mask discovered at the ancient Greek site of Mycenae.

Tutankhamun’s mask Masks of deceased persons are part of traditions in many countries. The most important process of the funeral ceremony in ancient Egypt was the mummification of the body, which, after prayers and consecration, was put into a sarcophagus enameled and decorated with gold and gems. A special element of the rite was a sculpted mask, put on the face of the deceased.

This mask was believed to strengthen the spirit of the mummy and guard the soul from evil spirits on its way to the afterworld. The best known mask is Tutankhamun’s mask. Made of gold and gems, the mask conveys the highly stylized features of the ancient ruler. Such masks were not, however, made from casts of the features; rather, the mummification process itself preserved the features of the deceased. In the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered in Mycenae six graves, which he was confident belonged to kings and ancient Greek heroes— Agamemnon , Cassandra , Evrimdon and their associates.

To his surprise, the skulls were covered with gold masks. It is now thought most unlikely that the masks actually belonged to Agamemnon and other heroes of the Homeric epics ; in fact they are several centuries older.

Greatest Recovered Artifact of All Time

Wine Tours The gods, goddesses and mythology of the Etruscans Many of the names listed here are Etruscan spellings and pronunciations of Greek and native Italic names, but some names are entirely Etruscan. An Etruscan tomb fresco Achlae: Greek river god, Achelous Achle, Achile: Also Eivas or Evas. The Greek legendary figure, Alcmena Alcstei, Alcsti: The Greek figure Althaea, mother of Meleager Ani:

The mask of “Agamemnon” is one of five such masks Schliemann uncovered and it must be seen in relationship to these as well as other luxury objects that came from these graves. Gold breastplates covered the torsos of several males, and the children were completely wrapped in sheet gold.

His father was a minister of religion and the family, which grew to include several children, was not too prosperous by all accounts. Indeed, the demise of Heinrich Schliemann’s mother in was followed by Heinrich’s being sent to live with an uncle although a brief period of education at a Gymnasium grammar school , was funded by his father. During his time at the Gymnasium Heinrich Schliemann was not yet a teenager but he may have already developed an interest in Archaeolgy.

In later life Schliemann claimed that his father had already introduced him to tales of the Greek Classical Era as related in The Iliad and The Odyssey, and had given him an Illustrated History of the World as a christmas gift in Heinrich Schliemann even claimed in later life that by the age of eight he had already formed the ambition to excavate the ancient city of Troy. Schliemann also related how he and a young playmate, a girl named Minna Meincke, used to conduct “archaeological excavations” at the local churchyard and would spend time in the ruins of a local castle.

The Mycenae Citadel

From an early age he was fascinated by Greek myths, particularly those connected with the story of the Trojan War, immortalised by poets like Homer eighth century BC in his two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad tells the story of the anger of the Greek warrior Achilles at Ilion, or Troy; the Odyssey recounts the adventures of Odysseus on his way home from Troy to the island of Ithaka. Schliemann was convinced that these stories were not mere myths, but that some kind of reality lay behind them.

He grew up determined to prove Homer right. Schliemann went into business, and was successful enough to pursue his archaeological interests full-time in his later 40s. His method was very simple:

Death mask’s wiki: A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person’s face following death, often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse. Death masks may be mementos of the dead, or be used for creation of por.

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Majestic Mycenae

History[ edit ] Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Bronze Age in mainland Greece under influences from Minoan Crete. The Mycenaeans quite possibly lived under Minoan dominance until around , when they conquered Crete. Conflicts with Minoans[ edit ] The Mycenaeans are often cited as one of the contributing factors to the rapid decline of Minoan civilization.

The Minoans lived on the Aegean island of Crete and had a naval influence that likely subjugated the Mycenaeans. Around the year BCE, it is believed that a volcanic eruption on the island of Santorini near Crete devastated the Minoans. The resulting weakness is thought to have allowed the Mycenaeans to overthrow the Minoans and replace them as the dominant culture of the region.

Schliemann believed Agamemnon was buried here, but the grave site is much older, dating from the 16 C BC. The graves contained the bodies of 8 men, 9 women and 2 children. Many burial furnishings and artifacts were also found, and they are some of the most beautiful ancient objects ever found.

Text edited by Rosamie Moore. Write to romapip quipo. Page revised in January The coins were found at Alexandria , Egypt and are now at the Numismatic Museum of Athens If you came to this page directly, you might wish to read a page with an explanation of the title of this section and a description of Mycenae first. National Archaeological Museum of Athens: Heinrich Schliemann was a German businessman and amateur archaeologist who in associated the ruins of Hisarlik, a site on the Anatolian coast opposite Tenedos , with Homer’s Troy and some jewels he found there with Helen of Sparta.

In August he started excavating at Mycenae and he associated a gold mask he found there with another mythical personage i.

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The find was made in Bulgaria’s “Valley of the Kings”, a region in the centre of the country dotted with dozens of Thracian burial mounds. Ravaged by treasure-hunters and deprived of government funding, the valley has been excavated at a snail’s pace over decades, often by small bands of volunteers led by year-old Prof Georgy Kitov, who made the recent discovery.

There are thousands of small tumuli in the mile valley and, while many are empty, some have proved to be extraordinary burial sites for the rulers of a civilisation that at its height 2, years ago controlled what is now Bulgaria, as well as parts of Romania, Macedonia, Turkey and Greece. The Thracians were a magnificent civilisation too. This is as significant as digging up the mask of Tutankhamen or Agamemnon.

The museum sweeps across millennia and throughout the Greek world: from Minoan Crete and the Cycladic islands to the golden treasures of Mycenae (including the dazzling mask of Agamemnon.

Heinrich Schliemann — Heinrich Schliemann was a German businessman and a pioneer in the field of archaeology. His work lent weight to the idea that Homers Iliad and Virgils Aeneid reflect historical events, along with Arthur Evans, Schliemann was a pioneer in the study of Aegean civilization in the Bronze Age. The two men knew of other, Evans having visited Schliemanns sites. Schliemann had planned to excavate at Knossos but died before fulfilling that dream, Evans bought the site and stepped in to take charge of the project, which was then still in its infancy.

Schliemann was born in Neubukow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin in and his father, Ernst Schliemann, was a Lutheran minister. The family moved to Ankershagen in , heinrichs Father was a poor Pastor. His mother, Luise Therese Sophie Schliemann, died in , after his mothers death, his father sent Heinrich to live with his uncle.

When he was years old, his father paid for him to enroll in the Gymnasium at Neustrelitz. Schliemann later claimed that at the age of 8, he had declared he would one day excavate the city of Troy. However, Heinrich had to transfer to the Realschule after his father was accused of embezzling funds and had to leave that institution in when his father was no longer able to pay for it. His familys poverty made a university education impossible, so it was Schliemanns early academic experiences that influenced the course of his education as an adult, in his archaeological career, however, there was often a division between Schliemann and the educated professionals.

He laboured for five years, until he was forced to leave because he burst a blood vessel lifting a heavy barrel, in , Schliemann moved to Hamburg and became a cabin boy on the Dorothea, a steamer bound for Venezuela. After twelve days at sea, the ship foundered in a gale, the survivors washed up on the shores of the Netherlands.

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Europe , Greece , Ruins and Fortifications , Traveling reports 1 After a short stop in Athens and by the Corinth Canal, the next destination of our Greek saga was the Peloponnese Peninsula, where we visited the archeological site of Mycenae, one of the oldest fortified Greek cities, set between Argos and Corinth. Colorful olive orchards, the liquid gold of the ancient Mediterranean cradle, and vineyards dotted the hills on our way, sadly interrupted by the havoc left behind by the fires that used to devastate the peninsula in summers until The Mycenae Civilization flourished in the late Bronze Age.

In August he started excavating at Mycenae and he associated a gold mask he found there with another mythical personage i.e. Agamemnon, the king who led the Greeks in the Trojan War and whose dramatic return home was chanted by Aeschylus in The Oresteia.

They absorbed Minoan culture but they were a warlike people like the Spartans. They thrived between and B. The Mycenaeans made weapons and armor from bronze and used them to conquer other cultures. Their leaders were buried with masks of gold. The people who became the Mycenaeans are believed to have entered the Greek mainland from the north around B. After conquering the Minoans around B. Their culture was influenced greatly by the Minoans.

Who is agamemnon?

Heinrich Schliemann , a German businessman, self-made millionaire, discoverer of the legendary city of Troy, and “father of Bronze Age archaeology,” reached the ancient site of Mycenae in to begin excavations just inside the ancient walls near the famous Lion Gate. Three months later he opened a large, rectangular grave, more than 27 feet below ground level, finding inside several bodies of men and women.

In less than three weeks, five of these shaft graves were excavated, four with multiple burials, and all containing numerous grave goods. In the fifth grave was a well-preserved skeletal torso and skull. According to legend, Schliemann sent off a telegram to the king of Greece, declaring that he “had gazed upon the face of Agamemnon.

VISITORS TO MYCENAE will always stop off at the Treasury of Atreus (aka the tomb of Agamemnon – see previous blog) to be awed by its size and magnificence.

If you would like us to send you an email whenever we add new stock please enter your email address below and click GO. The phrase basket-type hilts refers to a large group of hilts which provide a degree of protection to the hand and wrist. Basket-hilted swords have featured prominently among British military edged weapons over the past five centuries, from the Wars of the Roses in the mid fifteenth century to the period immediately after the second Boer War of the early twentieth century.

In setting out to give a full account of the hilt type, and the many variants within it, the first necessity has been to provide an appropriate terminology to employ in cataloguing and describing individual examples. The book, well illustrated with black and white illustrations, falls into several parts, dealing successively with general aspects of various hilt types and discussion of typological methodology, the three major groups of basket-hilted swords, the diverse group of incomplete basket hilts, ‘mortuary’ hilts, and hilts closely related to ‘mortuary’ hilts.

His large collection of British military swords may be seen at Brown University, donated by the author. The best book on British swords to be published for over a generation. Was born in in St.

Greece: highlights of the underrated Peloponnese

Death mask of Samuel F. Morse A death mask is an image, typically in wax or plaster cast made of a person’s face following death , often by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse. Death masks may be mementos of the dead, or be used for creation of portraits. It is sometimes possible to identify portraits that have been painted from death masks, because of the characteristic slight distortions of the features caused by the weight of the plaster during the making of the mold.

A QUICK TOUR OF AGAMEMNON’S CITADEL AT MYCENAE. Link to Mycenae Plan (Opens in a new window) The primary remains at Mycenae are walls and tombs- .

It was not the Athens we pictured in our mind. It was not a charming or romantic city we assumed it would be. It definitely lacked the polish and sexiness of other European capitals. Walking in its street felt like walking in a big city of a developing Asian country. It was grungy, it was smoggy, its traffic was crazy, and it was scorching hot in mid-September.

However, we did enjoy Athens! Instead of focusing on its disappointing side, we decided to focus on what it offers best, mainly the glorious antiquities from its splendid ancient past and the warmth and hospitality of its people. For us, those are what give Athens its soul, the one we fell in love with. This is what you go to Athens for!

The Oresteia Agamemnon part 1